A Second Sedna
- Title: A Sedna-like body with a perihelion of 80 astronomical units
- Authors: C. A. Trujillo & S. S. Sheppard
Sedna, a dwarf planet that resides far out in the depths of the solar system, is the first known objects that belongs to the inner Oort cloud. Discovered in 2003, Sedna became a very important trans-Neptunian object, aiding in the quest to learn about the evolution of the Solar System. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna was the farthest known body in the Solar System. Recently, an object called 2012VP113 was found to be another inner Oort cloud object. This confirms that Sedna is not an isolated body and that there may be more inner Oort cloud objects out there.
The authors conducted a sky survey that focused on objects with perihelion distances between 50 AU to around 300 AU. 2012VP113 was found to have a perihelion distance of 80 AU, making it farther away from the Sun than Sedna is. The surface color of 2012VP113 is moderately red, which is consistent with formation in the gas giant region, not in the classical Kuiper belt region.
An important question from the discoveries of Sedna and 2012VP113 is how do these inner Oort cloud objects form? Currently there are two preferred models, along with one lesser studied model. One model explores the possibility that a Kuiper belt object is perturbed by some planet-sized object out towards the inner Oort cloud region. The next model suggests that inner Oort cloud objects could have been created from a close stellar encounter during the formation of the early Solar System. The third model suggests that inner Oort cloud objects could be extrasolar planetesimals captured in the formation of the early Solar System. Each theory has different possibilities, and the discovery of additional inner Oort cloud objects would provide more insight into the formation of these bodies as well as our Solar System.
Image: A combination of three images showing 2012VP113, each taken two hours apart, on November 5, 2012. (Credit: Scott S. Sheppard/Carnegie Institution for Science)
Dwarf Galaxy NGC 4214 - A Star-Formation Laboratory
The dwarf galaxy NGC 4214 is ablaze with young stars and gas clouds. Located around 10 million light-years away in the constellation of Canes Venatici (The Hunting Dogs), the galaxy’s close proximity, combined with the wide variety of evolutionary stages among the stars, make it an ideal laboratory to research the triggers of star formation and evolution.
Intricate patterns of glowing hydrogen formed during the star-birthing process, cavities blown clear of gas by stellar winds, and bright stellar clusters of NGC 4214 can be seen in this optical and near-infrared image.
Observations of this dwarf galaxy have also revealed clusters of much older red supergiant stars. Additional older stars can be seen dotted all across the galaxy. The variety of stars at different stages in their evolution indicates that the recent and ongoing starburst periods are not the first, and the galaxy’s abundant supply of hydrogen means that star formation will continue into the future.
HUBBLE TAKES A CROSS-SECTION OF THE UNIVERSE
This image of a galaxy cluster, taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows various objects at different distances and stages in their development. The objects in the image range in distance from relatively close to us to others that were seen during the early Universe; most lie about five billion light-years from Earth.
Though many of the objects appear close to each other, they may in fact be billions of light-years apart; this is due to many of the groups of galaxies lying along our line of sight. Gravitational lensing also means that galaxies in the distant background appear distorted.
Gravitational lensing can amplify the light seen from distant objects, allowing telescopes like Hubble to see objects that would usually be too far away to view. The lensing itself is caused by the bending of the space-time continuum by large galaxies within our line of sight to distant objects.
CLASS B1608+656, a small loop in the centre of the image, is one of the lens systems visible. Two of the foreground galaxies are distorted and amplify the light from a distant quasar called QSO-160913+653228. The light from this quasar has taken nine billion years to reach us.
There are two other gravitational lenses within this image: two galaxies, known as Fred and Ginger, contain enough mass to distort the light from objects behind them. Fred is also known as [FMK2006] ACS J160919+6532, and is located near the lens galaxies in CLASS B1608+656, while Ginger ([FMK2006] ACS J160910+6532) is located much closer to us. Both galaxies can be seen near to CLASS B1608+656 in the central region of this image.
The image is made up of visible and infrared observations with a total exposure time of 14 hours. The view displays objects that are about a billion times fainter than what humans would see with their naked eye.
Credit: NASA, ESA
We would love for our followers and all of Tumblr to boost this fundraiser, we are hoping to raise money for the national gathering this way and it’s super important to us! Join and invite your friends if your from Kansas!! We would love to see you there !!
If you’re going to be out for Final Fridays in Lawrence, KS, check out this show!
While we were holding the vintique market, the ducks in the river ( which runs through the high street) had a different agenda
April 23, 1564: William Shakespeare Is Born
April 23, 1564 is widely known to be the day of William Shakespeare’s birth. Take Shakespeare Uncovered's “Which Shakespeare Character Are You?” quiz to see if you’re a Macbeth, Hamlet or Ophelia!